The Citizen Crime Fighting Act was a law passed in 1937 after the city council and mayoral elections of 1936 swept in a platform of pro-hero candidates. The Act made it legal for vigilantes to bring criminals to justice as long as they followed the same restrictions that police officers followed.
In 1952 the Act was expanded to include officially licensed hero organizations that could in turn deputize their members. In 1953 the Freedom Phalanx became the first group to take advantage of this new law, and the Dawn Patrol and the mysterious Midnight Squad quickly followed suit.
See: Student Badge.